VehicleEn

    Rolls Royce Wraith Palm Edition 999

    MANSORY presents an automobile treasure

    MANSORY Design & Holding GmbH is taking luxury to the peak of perfection and redefining the boundaries for opulent automobiles. As a nod to the splendour of 999 pure gold, MANSORY is giving its magnificent Rolls-Royce Wraith upgrade the name ‘Palm Edition 999’.

    Hellermann tyton

    Automotive Product Catalogue 2016/17 now available

    “In the new Automotive Product Catalogue we present a tailor-made product portfolio adapted to the requirements of the industry”, said Marten Rau, Automotive Sales Director EMEA at HellermannTyton. “Whether for a hybrid or a heavy duty vehicle application, HellermannTyton already has a future-oriented solution to hand.”

    RU 800 S

    RU 800 S: the robot that builds railways

    It’ s a robot, if you can call it that deals with the renewal of the ballast, of the arrangement of the partitions, of the laying of tracks and the subsequent anchoring of the same, made during his journey on the railway lines obsolete when replacing.

    FIA: Formula E

    Formula E: high speed, low emissions

    The 28th of June 2015, the first season of the Formula E championship ended. It’s similar to Formula 1, but the new competition has a particular feature: only electric cars can race. 10 teams and 20 single-seater racing in the world’s leading cities.

    It’s important to not make the mistake of thinking that these cars are slow and silent. The performances are worse than the engines of Formula 1, however they are great: 225 km/h (140 mph) is the maximum speed, with an acceleration from 0 to 100 km/h in only 3 seconds. Regarding the sound, “Formula E knows that the noise of any racing car is very important to its fans […]. Contrary to popular belief, the Formula E cars are far from silent”.

     

    The Formula E championship could change the automotive industry. The innovations proposed by teams’ engineers can be used on commercial cars: improving the electric engine, increasing the duration and the efficiency of the battery and perfecting other aspects, many people may interest in buying an electric car, reducing pollution in cities.

    ©fiaformulae.com

    The last year the difference between teams’ cars were very few, because all of them were build following Spark-Renault SRT_01E model, designed by international companies (McLaren, Williams, Dallara, Renault and Michelin), but the next championship will be more engaging, because every team will develop, modify and improve its cars, bringing many innovations.

    In the competition, the staff cars are ‘green’ too. BMW have announced that it will be the official vehicle partner, offering two particular cars: the ibrid BMW i8 will be the safety car, while the electric BMW i3 will be the medical car.

    However, the main difference between this and the other championships is the chance, for the public, to affect the race: FanBoost allows the three most voted pilots to use a boost, which increases the power of the car from 150 kw to 180 kw for 5 seconds.

     

    The second season of Formula E will start on 17th October 2015, in Beijing, China. While we wait for the Formula E championship’s to start, we can see in the video an electric single-seater during a test. It’s possible to see the high speed and to hear the sound of these cars.

    Cambio automatico

    Automatic transmission: strengths and weaknesses

    The transmission allows the transfer of the torque delivered by the engine to the wheels, according to the conditions required of power, speed and acceleration. The lower gears confer greater acceleration, and a lower speed, as opposed to the high ones that are used in situations of higher speeds.

    Schematically, the gearbox consists of 3 shafts (more that of the reverse gear) and other gears: the primary shaft directly receives the torque from the clutch, the secondary it is connected with the drive shaft or to the differential and the auxiliary, which allows a link between the two shafts and then between the engine and the wheels.

    When the transmission is in “neutral” the gears of the primary aren’t connected to the secondary, whereas the gear is engaged these gears meshing with the secondary and allow the transmission of torque to the wheels. The automatic transmission unlike the traditional one, guarantees the automatic variation of the transmission ratio. An automatic “well designed” transmission, improves performance, reduces fuel consumption and gear changes, selecting the right gear, optimize the transmission efficiency and also allows an increase in comfort and driving pleasure.

    We analyze the various types of automatic transmission:

    Robotic:

    wroar.net

    It consists of a conventional transmission, a control unit which selects the optimal number of revolutions (for the shift) and a servo-mechanism which chooses the right gear. You can use the manual (through the paddle on the steering wheel) or automatic setting . Generally it is the type of transmission with lower fuel consumption and higher efficiency but with poor driving fluidity. It’s often mounted on sports vehicles (for high efficiency) and small cars for low consumption.

     

     

    With a double clutch:

    wroar.net

    Presents two clutches, each converted to a series of gears (one odd and even the other). Inserting a gear, the other clutch is preparing to insert the next gear, improving on the previous transmission, the smoother ride. It implies a low consumption but a not very high transmittable torque.

     

    With hydraulic converter:

    cambiautomaticiitalia.it

    It uses a hydraulic converter (replacing the clutch of the traditional trasnsmission) that connects the engine and transmission through a fluid, thus achieving two important functions: to middle-high rpm and with the growth of the fluid forces, it allows the transfer of torque between the engine and transmission; decreasing rpm, allows the engine to not stop even with the stationary vehicle. In vehicles with this type of automatic transmission it’s provided a parking function which mechanically locks the transmission. It’s characterized by high consumption, especially in older models. At the same time it allows high workability of use, not present in the other models (except in CVT).

     

    With variable or CVT:

    gommeblog.it

    It usee pulleys and belts, don’t present real gears ratio, but they depend on how you move the belt on the pulleys. It’s often used on scooters and is characterized by an excellent fluidity of movement with the greatest possible comfort, even if consumption is on average higher than a manual gearbox.

     

     

     

    kers

    Kers: the energy storage system

    The KERS (Kinetic Energy Recovery System), is a device that allows a partial recovery of the kinetic energy dispersed in deceleration and braking (in form of heat), in mechanical or electrical energy, avalaible for the propulsion of the vehicle, the operation of its devices and also allows a reduction of fuel consumption. This system is (generally) consists of an engine / generator, an accumulator of energy (electrical or mechanical) and a control system.

    racecar-engineering.com

     

    The kers from 2009 is used in formula 1, to improve performance of the cars, recovering 400 KJ of energy can be delivered with a power of 60 kW (about 80 Hp) for 6,6 seconds. Depending on the energy storage system used, we distinguish the kers in electrical and mechanical.

     

     

    The mechanical kers is constituted by a flywheel connected to the engine by a variable ratio transmission. The energy produced by the vehicle during braking is stored and converted by a system of pulleys and gears that works on the block gear-converter-flywheel.

    SLIDESHARE.NET

     

    The electric kers compared with the mechanical kers presents a more simple construction scheme, but is more complex in the eyes of management and logistics of the weights (it weighs about ten kg more).

     

    The system is constituted by an engine-generator connected to a series of batteries. During braking, the motor acts as a generator converting the mechanical energy into electrical energy, then converted into chemical energy to charge batteries; instead during acceleration the process will be reversed, providing power to the electric motor that will work simultaneously to heat engine. This type of kers, is characterized by a more complex energy conversion process and is able to recover 40% of energy compared to 70% of the mechanical solution. Its main advantage is the possibility to change the configuration of the installation depending on our needs.

     

    differenziale

    Differential: the transfer case

    The differential is a mechanical device that receives the machine torque from a shaft and allocating on two other, allowing each of them to rotate at different speeds according to the trajectory. It’s a reduction mechanism, before the force of the motor is transferred to the wheels, manages power and rotary speed, allowing the two wheels on the same axle to rotate at different speeds.

    The differential in its simplest configuration, is constituted by a planet carrier cage which are bound the two axes, two satellites positioned on the axes, and meshed with two planetary solidarity with the drive shafts.

    This epicyclic gear train, on a straight path, transmits the same torque to the wheels, and then the number of turns, cornering, having the outer wheel to travel a greater trajectory, allows it to rotate faster, so as not to lose grip; the difference in speed of rotation between the inner and outer wheel is more evident when the curve to travel is more tighter.

    This ingenious mechanism improves the stability of the car when cornering, and has the only downside to distribute most torque to the wheel with less grip;

    sicurauto

    however, this problem is solved with the limited slip differential, which has a sensor that perceiving the torque difference between the two wheels, blocks the satellites, and eliminates thus the use of differential allowing the wheels to rotate at the same speed. The progress of technology has allowed the creation of active differentials, governed by a computer that analyzes the sensor data, calculating steering angle, lateral acceleration and automatically adjusting torque distribution, reducing the hardness of the steering and all other effects negative that occur in the condition of understeer.

     

    aereo

    Turbofan: the aeronautic engine

    The modern airplanes use as engine a turbofan, it consists essentially of a front air inlet, a fan, a compressor, a combustion chamber, an exhaust duct, a gas turbine, a nozzle back and other secondary organs, all enclosed in a structure placed on the fuselage of the aircraft.

    The fan distributes the air in two separate flows:

    The hot flow that passes through all the stages of the engine and the cold flow which passes through the fan and the nozzle (Turbofan with associated flows) or the single fan (Turbofan with separated flows).

    In these engines, the air is compressed through a compressor and then sent into the combustion chamber, where, mixed with fuel, after combustion, generates a flow of hot gases; this flow is directed through the turbine blades, in which it realizes the conversion of kinetic energy of the gas into mechanical energy absorbed by the turbine, required to rotate the compressor, the fan and the operation of the auxiliary components moved by the motor.

    ing.unitn.it

    The enthalpy and pressure, at the exhaust of the turbine, is converted, through the discharge nozzle, into kinetic energy generating a small part of the thrust required for propulsion. Most of the thrust is produced by a flow of cold air, accelerated, since forced through a duct of decreasing section. Due to the enormous volume, it’s necessary a small increase in the speed of the external flow, so that it develops an enormous amount of thrust.

     

    Hendo: the first hoverboard in history

    The founder of the company Arx Pax, Greg Henderson, is the inventor of Hendo, a board that allows you to float a few inches above the ground. To rise from the ground engineers have used 4 “Hover Engine” capable of creating a powerful magnetic field, generating a magnetic repulsion force between the motor and a metal surface.

    The magnetic levitation (maglev) is a method by which an object is suspended on another without any support (in addition to magnetic fields). The electromagnetic force is used to counter the effects of the gravitational force.

    The system of “levitation” is still under development and therefore the movements of the hoverboard aren’t  yet fluid and precise. This first model supports up to about 136 kg (226 kg, the final version) and is offered at $ 10,000 on Kickstarter.

    slashgear.com

    The ultimate goal of the Hendo technology consists of an anti-seismic application, if you had to have the technology to put permanent structures in a few inches from the ground, without lateral movements.

     


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